Montgomery College 2015-2016 Catalog 
    Sep 27, 2023  
Montgomery College 2015-2016 Catalog [ARCHIVED CATALOG]

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BIOL 230 - Molecular Cell Biology

A detailed study of the molecular structure and function of the eukaryotic cell including cell ultrastructure, molecular genetic mechanisms and techniques, structure of chromosomes and genes and transcriptional as well as posttranscriptional control of gene expression, structure of biomembranes and movement of molecules into and through cellular membranes, cell signaling mechanisms, cytoskeletal systems and cellular movement, interactions, division, lineage and death of cells, molecular cell biology of development, of nerve cells, of immunology and of cancer. PREREQUISITE(S): A grade of C or better in BIOL 150 . Four hours of chemistry recommended but not required. Three hours lecture, three hours laboratory each week. Formerly BI 230.

4 semester hours

Course Outcomes:
Upon course completion, a student will be able to:

  • State in which ways all cells are similar and in which ways cells are different. (Cell Basis of Life)
  • State the different types of biologically important macromolecules and describe the structure of each type. (Chemical Foundations)
  • Describe what types of work a cell performs and how the cell does it. (Chemical Foundations)
  • List and describe the various cellular components and the interactions between them. (Chemical Foundations)
  • Identify the above-mentioned cellular components on electron micrographs. (Chemical Foundations)
  • Describe the different chemical bonds present in cellular molecules and how these bonds are used to build large molecules from simple building blocks. (Chemical Foundations)
  • Define chemical equilibrium and show how and why it is important for cellular function. (Chemical Foundations)
  • Define energetics and show how the cell couples and balances the energy yielding reactions to the energy requiring reactions. (Chemical Foundations)
  • Describe the different levels of protein structure and relate structure to function. (Protein Structure and Function)
  • Describe how proteins are modified and degraded. (Protein Structure and Function)
  • Discuss different ways of purifying, detecting, and analyzing proteins. (Protein Structure and Function)
  • State in detail the structure of nucleic acids. (Molecular Genetic Mechanisms)
  • Describe how protein coding genes are transcribed and how functional messenger RNA is formed. (Molecular Genetic Mechanisms)
  • Describe how transfer RNA decodes information present in mRNA sequences. (Molecular Genetic Mechanisms)
  • Describe the structure of ribosomes and how these organelles function to make proteins. (Molecular Genetic Mechanisms)
  • Describe how DNA is replicated, repaired, and recombined. (Molecular Genetic Mechanisms)
  • Describe how viruses highjack basic cellular genetic systems. (Molecular Genetic Mechanisms)
  • Analyze how genetic mutations are used to study genes. (Molecular Genetic Techniques)
  • Describe the cloning and characterization of DNA and how this cloned DNA is used to study gene expression. (Molecular Genetic Techniques)
  • Describe how to identify and locate human disease genes and how to use RNA silencing techniques to inactivate specific genes. (Molecular Genetic Techniques)
  • Describe in detail the structure of genes and how genes are organized in chromosomes. (Genes, Genomics, and Chromosomes)
  • Define transposons and describe how and why these are important. (Genes, Genomics, and Chromosomes)
  • State which cellular organelles have DNA and describe the structure of this DNA. (Genes, Genomics, and Chromosomes)
  • Describe and detail the morphology and functional elements and structural organization of eukaryotic chromosomes. (Genes, Genomics, and Chromosomes)
  • Perform genome wide analysis of gene structure and expression. (Genes, Genomics, and Chromosomes)
  • Describe in detail how gene expression is controlled in prokaryotes. (Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression)
  • Compare and contrast the controls of gene expression used in prokaryotes with the controls used in eukaryotes. (Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression)
  • Describe in detail the control of transcription in eukaryotes at the levels of RNA polymerase, of transcription factors, of elongation, and termination of transcription. (Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression)
  • Describe how the main classes of RNA are processed and how they move through the nuclear membrane. (Post Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression)
  • Define microRNA, small nucleolar RNA, small interfering RNA; describe how these various classes of RNA are generated and what regulatory roles they have in the cell. (Post Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression)
  • Define and describe the different organelles in the cell. (Visualizing, Fractionating, and Culturing Cells)
  • Describe methods for light microscopic visualization of structures and proteins in cells. (Visualizing, Fractionating, and Culturing Cells)
  • Describe methods for electron microscopy. (Visualizing, Fractionating, and Culturing Cells)
  • Identify cellular organelles in electron micrographs. (Visualizing, Fractionating, and Culturing Cells)
  • Describe methods used to fractionate cells and purify cell organelles. (Visualizing, Fractionating, and Culturing Cells)
  • Describe methods of cell culture. (Visualizing, Fractionating, and Culturing Cells)
  • Describe in detail the molecular structure of cellular membranes. (Biomembranes)
  • Describe the different membrane components and state the roles and functions of each component. (Biomembranes)
  • Analyze how molecules move across membranes, how proteins enter different cellular membranes, how secretory pathways are structured, and how they function. (Biomembranes)
  • Describe how cells respond to signals, how the signals are transduced into cellular responses, and how these responses alter gene activity. (Cell Signaling)
  • Describe the different components of the cytoskeleton, how their assembly and disassembly are controlled, and what other components are important. (Cytoskeleton)
  • Define the extracellular matrix. (Cells into Tissues)
  • Describe the common components of the extracellular matrix, how they interact, and what their functions are in both animal and plant tissues. (Cells into Tissues)
  • Define the cell cycle and describe the phases of the cycle and the important components. (Cell Division, Birth, Lineage, and Death)
  • Define the functions of the important components including regulatory molecules. (Cell Division, Birth, Lineage, and Death)
  • Describe cell birth, cell lineages, and cell death (Cell Division, Birth, Lineage, and Death)
  • Describe how the important molecules interact. (Cell Division, Birth, Lineage, and Death)
  • Describe the stages of development. (Development)
  • State the important molecules required for development and describe the roles and functions of the various molecules. (Development)
  • Describe the important structural features of nerve cells. (Nerve Cells)
  • Define ion channels and synapses and describe the molecular components of these. (Nerve Cells)
  • Describe nerve cells involved in sensation. (Nerve Cells)
  • Define an axon; describe how it grows, how its growth is controlled, and what the important components are. (Nerve Cells)
  • Describe how nerve cells connect. (Nerve Cells)
  • Describe the parts of the immune system. (Immunology)
  • Define innate and adaptive immunity. (Immunology)
  • Define immunoglobulins; describe their structure and the processes which produce them. (Immunology)
  • Describe how the two halves of the specific immune system interact and collaborate. (Immunology)
  • Define cancer; describe its genetic basis; describe the normal cellular controls and how they are circumvented in cancer cells. (Cancer)

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